A small object worn to ward off evil; a talisman
Appears in English around the turn of the 17th century. From Latin amuletum, via Middle French amulete.
To attempt to equal or surpass
Appears in English around the turn of the 17th century. From Latin aemulatus, past participle of aemulari, to rival.
To kill as a sacrificial victim, as by fire
Appears in English around the mid 16th century. From Latin immolatus, past participle of immolare, to sprinkle with holy meal prior to sacrificing (mol=sacrificial barley cake, literally millstone!)
A thick egg pancake made with cheese, veggie, and/or meat fillings
Appears in English around the turn of the 17th century. From French omelette, earlier amelette, metathetic¹ form of alemette, variation of alemelle—literally a thin plate—which was a variation of Old French lemelle, from Latin lamella, plate. “Lamella” is in itself an English word that means a thin plate, scale, membrane, or layer in various biological contexts.
A two-dot diacritical mark on a vowel (i.e., ü, ë, etc.) to indicate a change in pronunciation from the unmarked vowel
Appears in English in the mid 19th century. From German um-, about (i.e., changed) + Laut, sound.
¹metathesis=the transposition of letters, syllables, or sounds in a word
Etymological info and some definitions taken from dictionary.com unabridged